Mexico gained it's independence from Spain on September 16, 1810. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was a Catholic priest who declared Mexico independent from the Spanish Empire. Spain was defeated and the Mexican Empire arose.
The first Mexican Empire lasted for less than a year. July 21st 1822-March 19th 1823. During this time Central American representatives wished to separate from the Mexican Empire. The Mexican Empire accepted their proposal and the Central American representatives were allowed to create and organize their own governments. A revolt in Mexico was soon to follow, one of their leaders was General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's (shown above) revolt was successful and he created the Mexican Republic on December 2nd 1823. Before we can learn more about this Mexican Republic we have to look into Santa Anna's background.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was born on February 21st 1874 in Xalapa, Mexico. His father was from Spain and his mother from France. At 16 Santa Anna joined the Spanish army, and by 18 he was promoted to first lieutenant. He quickly joined the Mexican rebellion along with Agustin de Iturbide, which he later helped overthrow.
Agustin de Iturbide (shown, above) was the first emperor of Mexico, he faught alongside Santa Anna and made Santa Anna General. In 1823 Agustin de Iturbide was overthrown by Santa Anna and other high ranking military men.
The first president of Mexico, president Guadalupe Victoria (shown above) was born in Tamazula, Durango. He took office in 1824, slavery was abolished under his rule, and the military academy was also created under Guadalupe Victoria's rule. After Guadalupe Victoria, came the 2nd president of Mexico Vicente Ramon Guerrero Saldaņa, which only lasted for a very short time. The Mexican Republic was very unstable, with coups and rebellions all over Mexico. Finally Santa Anna took control of Mexico. In 1835 rebels in Texas declared themselves independent from Mexico, and created the Republic of Texas. A politically unstable Mexico sent Mexican troops to put down the rebellion in Texas. In 1836 The Mexican troops lead by Santa Anna found themselves fighting the Texas rebels which consisted of illegal aliens (from the U.S.) and fellow Mexican citizens. In 1836 the rebels took refuge in an old Spanish mission called "the Alamo" The siege lasted for 13 days, and the Mexican military came out victorious.
On the month of January, 1862 French, along with Spanish and British troops arrived in Mexico's port of Veracruz and quickly took control. France had begun it's invasion of Mexico, but on the 5th of May, 1862 the great French army lost one of it's first battles in Mexico, this battle is known as the "battle of Puebla" and thus Mexican's today celebrate "5 De Mayo" Though the French lost one of it's first battles, they quickly marched to the Mexican capital, and on June 7th, 1863 the French move into Mexico city, by June 16 the French controlled the city. The king of France, Napoleon III appoint's Austrian born Maximilian I (shown above), to take the thrown in Mexico, he accept's and becomes Maximilian I emperor of the second Mexican Empire. During 1864-1866 Mexican rebels battled against the French, Austrian, and Belgian troops which defended the Mexican Monarchy. Little by little Mexican rebels or "Republicans" as they are known begin taking control of many city's, by September 1866 most of French government officials, and French troops, began to head back to France. Though Maximilian was told to leave Mexico by Napoleon III, Maximilian decided to stay with only the Austrian and Belgian troops to defend his Monarch. On June 19, 1876 Maximilian was executed, along side his two top generals, Gen. Mejia, and Gen. Miramon.
Once the French were defeated and left, Maximilian I was left to defend his Mexican Empire along with Austrian and Belgian troops, he was quickly captured by military troops under the command of Benito Juarez (shown above) and Gen. Porfirio Diaz. Benito Juarez was the first and so far only Mexican president which was Amerindian. He served greatly for two terms, when he died in 1872 he was replaced by Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, under his rule Mexico's railways were beginning to be built. In November of 1876 Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada was forced to exile to New York, United States, by Porfirio Diaz. Porfirio Diaz would rule Mexico from 1876-1910, during his time Mexico began to gain a good steady economy. Elections in Mexico were to be held in 1910. Francisco Madero ran against dictator Porfirio Diaz, Madero was arrested, he quickly called for a revolution and so began the Mexican revolution of 1910.
Porfirio Diaz was quickly defeated, in the South Emiliano Zapata created an army of workers, and farmers and began combating government troops, in the North Francisco "Pancho" Villa (shown above) took control. Francisco Madero took control of Mexico after Diaz, but in 1913 during the confusion of the revolution Madero was overthrown by one of his generals, Gen. Huerta. Huertas rule over Mexico was short lived, with Villa, Zapata, and other rebel leaders overthrowing Huerta.
In 1914 U.S. sailors landed in Veracruz, Mexican officials arrested the sailors. This provoked the U.S. to bomb Veracruz. In 1916 Pancho Villa attacked the city of Columbus, New Mexico, U.S.A. The United States sent General Pershing to conduct an expedition to capture Villa. The expedition was a failure, and in 1917 U.S. forces left Mexico.